The European Union will propose issuing a certificate called a Digital Green Pass, Ursula von der Leyen, the president of the European Commission, said.Credit…Pool photo by Johanna Geron

The European Union will propose issuing a certificate called a Digital Green Pass that would let people who have been vaccinated against the coronavirus travel more freely, Ursula von der Leyen, the president of the European Commission, said on Monday.

“The Digital Green Pass should facilitate Europeans’ lives,” Ms. von der Leyen wrote on Twitter. “The aim is to gradually enable them to move safely in the European Union or abroad — for work or tourism.”

The announcement followed an intense debate at a virtual meeting last week that laid bare deep divisions among leaders of the bloc’s 27 member nations.

Tourism-dependent nations like Greece have been pushing for such a plan to help salvage the summer travel season, while others, led by France, have been wary of the potential for discrimination between vaccinated and non-vaccinated Europeans, as well as possible infringement on personal data protection.

“In the future, it will certainly be good to have such a certificate, but that will not mean that only those who have such a passport will be able to travel,” Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany said after the meeting last week.

Vaccination efforts in the European Union have generally gotten off to a sluggish start. Just 5 percent of the bloc’s population has received at least one shot of vaccine so far. But the certificates will go beyond vaccination status to include the holder’s wider medical history concerning the virus, according to Christian Wigand, the commission’s spokesman.

“We will also be looking at other categories of information to avoid discrimination of citizens, such as test results and statements of recovery,” Mr. Wigand said on Monday.

Getting the system set up and issuing certificates would take at least three months, the commission said. It was not immediately clear what legislative and technical steps would be required, nor whether the system would extend beyond European Union citizens.

The commission said there should be a way to scale it up globally, in cooperation with the World Health Organization. But when pressed for further details, Mr. Wigand asked for “a little bit of patience,” explaining that “this is all very fresh.”

After the meeting with the 27 national leaders last week, Ms. von der Leyen said: “It is important to have a European solution, because otherwise others will go into this vacuum. Google and Apple are already offering solutions to the W.H.O., and this is sensitive information.”

Apple said afterward that Ms. von der Leyen might have misunderstood and that the company was not currently offering such a solution.



The new variant is just the latest in a string of coronavirus mutations during the past few months.


A new, potentially concerning coronavirus variant has been identified in New York City and throughout the Northeast, researchers reported this week.

It’s the latest in a string of variants that have emerged in countries around the globe.

You might remember that a UK variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) surfaced in December. Since then, scientists around the globe have kept tabs on several others identified in places like South Africa and Brazil. The concern is that certain variants could be more transmissible and perhaps more deadly, and that current vaccines won’t sufficiently protect people.

So how troubling is this New York mutant? Here’s the what we know so far.

What is the New York coronavirus variant?

The New York variant, dubbed B.1.526, bears a “unique set of spike mutations,” which scientists at Columbia University say “could threaten the efficacy of current antibody therapies and vaccines.” The team’s preliminary findings were posted online Thursday and have yet to be peer-reviewed.

The researchers screened 1,142 COVID-positive samples collected from patients between November 1, 2020, and February 15, 2021. Over that time, they observed a steady increase in people with the coronavirus variant, and these folks came from neighborhoods across the metropolitan area. They were older, on average, than people who didn’t have the variant, and they were more frequently hospitalized, according to the research.

Separately, a team from the California Institute of Technology developed software to look for specific mutations in the virus. The B.1.526 variant accounted for about a quarter of the New York-area viral sequences examined this month. CalTech’s findings—posted online Tuesday—are also considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.

How worrisome is New York’s variant—and coronavirus variants in general?

“The appearance of mutants of COVID-19 shouldn’t surprise any of us,” Nancy Messonnier, MD, director of the National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, explained during a JAMA Network livestream on Friday. That’s just how viruses behave.

While the variants do raise concern, she allowed, right now there’s no reason to believe that the effectiveness of the vaccines will be impacted. At the same time, Dr. Messonnier noted that careful studies are needed to assess vaccine effectiveness going forward.

Both Pfizer and Moderna announced this week that they are studying potential booster doses of their two-dose COVID vaccines as a possible hedge against evolving variants.

“We need to be full steam ahead in vaccination,” Dr. Messonnier added.

Rochelle Walensky, MD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), addressed the issue during a White House COVID-19 Response Team press briefing on Friday. “CDC has been sounding the alarm about the continued spread of variants in the United States,” she said.

The UK variant known as B.1.1.7, for example, currently is thought to be 50% more transmissible than the “wild-type” (or natural) strain of the coronavirus, she noted. It accounts for approximately 10% of cases in the US, up from 1% to 4% a few weeks ago, “and prevalence is even higher in certain areas of the country,” she added.

How should people react to information regarding new variants?

Emerging variants in New York as well as in California (the B.1.427) appear to spread more easily and are contributing to “a large fraction” of infections in those areas, Dr. Walensky noted. “We may be done with the virus, but the virus clearly is not done with us,” she said.

New York City’s Senior Health Advisor Jay Varma, MD, cautioned that more study is needed. “We need to just consider this a variant of interest,” something that needs to be tracked but doesn’t change the public health response, he told reporters at a press briefing on Thursday.

The key message remains unchanged, Dr. Varma said. “Follow the guidance on masks, particularly the guidance on potentially wearing two masks if you don’t have a well-fitting mask. Maintain your distance, wash your hands, get tested, and when your turn comes up, get vaccinated,” he said. “That is the single most important message that every New Yorker should have.”


The authorization of a third Covid-19 vaccine will bring millions more doses within days. But health officials worry that some people will see the vaccine as the inferior choice.

The company plans to ship around 20 million doses by the end of March.Credit…Mark Ralston/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

WASHINGTON — The Food and Drug Administration on Saturday authorized Johnson & Johnson’s single-shot Covid-19 vaccine for emergency use, beginning the rollout of millions of doses of a third effective vaccine that could reach Americans by early next week.

The announcement arrived at a critical moment, as the steep decline in coronavirus cases seems to have plateaued and millions of Americans are on waiting lists for shots.

Johnson & Johnson has pledged to provide the United States with 100 million doses by the end of June. When combined with the 600 million doses from the two-shot vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna slated to arrive by the end of July, there will be more than enough shots to cover any American adult who wants one.

But federal and state health officials are concerned that even with strong data to support it, some people may perceive Johnson & Johnson’s shot as an inferior option.

The new vaccine’s 72 percent efficacy rate in the U.S. clinical trial site — a number scientists have celebrated — falls short of the roughly 95 percent rate found in studies testing the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines. Across all trial sites, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine also showed 85 percent efficacy against severe forms of Covid-19 and 100 percent efficacy against hospitalization and death.

“Don’t get caught up, necessarily, on the number game, because it’s a really good vaccine, and what we need is as many good vaccines as possible,” Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the government’s top infectious disease expert, said in an interview on Saturday. “Rather than parsing the difference between 94 and 72, accept the fact that now you have three highly effective vaccines. Period.”

If Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine would have been the first to be authorized in the United States instead of the third, “everybody would be doing handstands and back flips and high-fives,” said Dr. James T. McDeavitt, dean of clinical affairs at the Baylor College of Medicine.

On Sunday a committee of vaccine experts who advise the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will meet to discuss whether certain population groups should be prioritized for the vaccine, guidance that state health officials have been eagerly awaiting in anticipation of the F.D.A.’s authorization.

One administration official familiar with the distribution of the vaccine said that shipments would begin on Monday and deliveries could arrive as soon as Tuesday.

Johnson & Johnson has said it will ship nearly four million doses as soon as the F.D.A. authorizes distribution and another 16 million or so doses by the end of March. That is far fewer than the 37 million doses called for in its $1 billion federal contract, but the contract says that deliveries that are 30 days late will still be considered timely.

The federal government is paying the firm $10 a dose for a total of 100 million doses to be ready by the end of June, substantially less per dose than it agreed to pay Moderna and Pfizer, which developed its vaccine with a German partner, BioNTech.

Johnson & Johnson’s one-dose vaccine will allow states to rapidly increase the number of people who have been fully inoculated. Unlike the other two vaccines, it can be stored at standard refrigeration temperatures for at least three months.

Dr. Danny Avula, Virginia’s vaccine coordinator, is excited by the arrival of the newest vaccine.
Dr. Danny Avula, Virginia’s vaccine coordinator, is excited by the arrival of the newest vaccine.Credit…Carlos Bernate for The New York Times

Dr. Danny Avula, the vaccine coordinator for Virginia, said the Johnson & Johnson shipments would boost the state’s allotment of vaccine next week by nearly one-fifth.

“I’m super-pumped about this,” he said. “A hundred percent efficacy against deaths and hospitalizations? That’s all I need to hear.”

He said the state was planning mass vaccination events specifically for the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, partly to quell any suspicion that it is a lesser product targeted to specific groups.

“It will be super clear that this is Johnson & Johnson, here’s what you need to know about it. If you want to do this, you’re coming in with eyes wide open,” he said. “If not, you will keep your place on the list.”

Michele Roberts, the assistant secretary of Washington State’s health department, said that it would be difficult to explain the technical aspects of how Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine trials differed from those of other drug makers. Because the studies were conducted at different times and with different protocols, precise comparisons can be problematic. All three trials showed the vaccines provided strong protection against Covid-19, especially for severe disease.

Understanding the subtle contrasts requires a lot of “scientific literacy,” she said. “There are so many different factors at play. But those aren’t, you know, quick public messages.”

Even some clinicians misinterpret the differences among the Covid-19 vaccines, health officials said. “They assume it’s apples to apples but it’s apples to oranges, or worse, apples to tires,” said Dr. Nirav Shah, the director of the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

Last week, Dr. Shah said, the leader of one group of specialty health clinics in his state initially turned down his offer to ship doses of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, saying his health practitioners were concerned it was less efficacious than the other two.

He said he told him: “Stop right there. We need to have a Zoom conversation right now with your entire medical staff.” Instead, he carefully explained Johnson & Johnson’s results to the provider, who then spoke with his staff. Twenty minutes later, the provider sent him a message saying: “We’re on board. Send us the J & J.”

Some state officials have been frustrated by what they view as a lack of a coordinated plan from the Biden administration on how to deploy the new vaccine. Governors have asked the White House for guidance, but administration officials have so far left it up to the states to decide.

Even though Johnson & Johnson received ample federal support and agreed to manufacture at risk, federal officials familiar with its operation said the company took an overly conservative approach to production, emphasizing scaling up on the back end of its contract.

As a result, Johnson & Johnson is expected to deliver the bulk of its 100 million doses in the late spring or early summer. The country will still need them: By the end of May, Pfizer and Moderna have promised to ship enough doses to vaccinate 200 million Americans, leaving roughly 60 million eligible adults still uncovered. But with the spread of more contagious variants of the virus, health officials are anxious to vaccinate as many Americans as fast as possible.

Johnson & Johnson produced its first batch of roughly four million doses at its Dutch plant, federal officials said. The company’s new plant in Baltimore is expected to supply the bulk of its doses for the United States.

Americans are becoming more open to getting Covid-19 vaccines, according to the latest survey from the Kaiser Family Foundation, which has been monitoring attitudes since December. Fifty-five percent of adults now say they have either received one dose or will get it as soon as they can, up from 34 percent in December.

A drive-through Covid-19 vaccination site at Dodger Stadium.Credit…Philip Cheung for The New York Times

But Rupali Limaye, who studies vaccine hesitancy at Johns Hopkins University, said she worried about whether health officials and community leaders would sufficiently emphasize the strengths of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, including how well it prevents the onset of severe Covid-19, hospitalization and death.

“People will want to know: Why is this one so much less and what does it mean for us?” she said. “I’m worried it’s going to cause more questions than confidence.”

Absent more direction from the federal government, state health officials are consulting with each other about where to direct the new source of supply.

Dr. Marcus Plescia, the chief medical officer for the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, which represents state health agencies, predicted that “many states are going to be a little bit cautious” about where they initially ship the vaccine.

“You don’t want to say, ‘OK, we’re going to use this vaccine for our rural populations because it’s easier to ship.’” That may trigger a backlash from people who wrongly suspect that for some reason or another, they are being offered a second-rate vaccine, he said.

Dr. Shah of Maine said the new vaccine was particularly well-suited for drive-through vaccination sites, partly because it appeared less likely to trigger the kinds of side effects that require monitoring. Health officials in other states said it might also make sense to direct doses toward transient population groups who might be less likely to show up for second shots. Colleges might be particularly interested.

Dr. Jennifer Dillaha, the state epidemiologist in Arkansas’s health department, said the vaccine’s easier storage conditions could also increase the number of vaccinations in other nonmedical settings, like senior centers or sites in underserved communities that lack pharmacies or health care providers.

In order to limit possible confusion, some state health officials said that they initially plan to direct the new vaccine to new sites, not ones that are already administering the other vaccines.

Dr. Shah said that some pharmacists in Maine would rather handle one type of Covid-19 vaccine at a time. Although that may change, Dr. Shah said, “Every day matters. Anything that is introduced into the workflow that slows down the pace of vaccination hurts us.”


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