New study underscores importance of managing pain during recovery

October 14, 2018
American Society of Anesthesiologists
While childbirth pain has been linked to postpartum depression, the culprit may be the pain experienced by the mother following childbirth, rather than during the labor and delivery process.

While childbirth pain has been linked to postpartum depression, the culprit may be the pain experienced by the mother following childbirth, rather than during the labor and delivery process, suggests new research presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2018 annual meeting.

Previous research has demonstrated the pain associated with giving birth may increase the risk of postpartum depression but has not specified which part of the labor process (e.g., before, during or after delivery) may be the source of the problem. This is the first study to differentiate postpartum pain from labor and delivery pain and identify it as a significant risk factor for postpartum depression.

“For many years, we have been concerned about how to manage labor pain, but recovery pain after labor and delivery often is overlooked,” said Jie Zhou, M.D., M.B.A., lead author of the study and assistant professor of anesthesia at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston. “Our research suggests we need to focus more on helping new mothers manage pain after the baby is born.”

Symptoms of postpartum depression — including extreme sadness, low energy, anxiety, crying episodes, irritability and changes in sleep or eating patterns — affect about 1 in 9 women, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Postpartum depression can lead to lower rates of breastfeeding and poor bonding with the baby.

In the study, Dr. Zhou’s research group reviewed pain scores (from the start of labor to hospital discharge) for 4,327 first-time mothers delivering a single child vaginally or by cesarean delivery (C-section) at Brigham and Women’s Hospital between June 1, 2015 and Dec. 31, 2017. They compared pain scores to the mothers’ Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) scores one week after delivery.

Dr. Zhou found postpartum depression was significantly associated with higher postpartum pain scores. Mothers with postpartum depression demonstrated more pain-related complaints during recovery and often needed additional pain medication. Women in the postpartum depression group were more likely to have delivered by C-section. They also had more reports of inadequate postpartum pain control.

A number of factors can contribute to postpartum depression. Researchers determined postpartum depression was higher among women who were overweight or obese; who suffered from a torn perineum (the area adjacent to the vaginal opening); who had a history of depression, anxiety or chronic pain; and whose babies were smaller and had lower Apgar scores, a scoring system used to assess the physical health of newborns one minute and five minutes after birth.

“While ibuprofen and similar pain medications are considered adequate for pain control after childbirth, clearly some women need additional help managing pain,” said Dr. Zhou. “We need to do a better job identifying who is at risk for postpartum pain and ensure they have adequate postpartum care.”

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181014142700.htm

There’s a reason why adults are more afraid of dolls than children.

If the sight of your grandmother’s old china dolls gives you goose bumps, you aren’t alone. While very little research has been conducted about the fear of dolls, all you have to do is look at the abundance of popular movies and television shows featuring the (often murderous) children’s toys to realize that a lot of people shudder at the sight of them.

Halloween is just around the corner, and you are pretty much guaranteed to see at least one creepy doll costume. But why exactly are dolls so scary to some people? We spoke to a psychologist to find out.

Why do so many people have a fear of dolls?

It’s important to note that most youngsters aren’t actually afraid of dolls, explains clinical psychologist Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, PhD, a faculty member in the department of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at UCLA. “People aren’t born being afraid of dolls,” she explains. “In fact, many kids like them.”

Instead, the fear you feel is conditioned over the years, likely by all of the evil dolls you see in pop culture. Anyone who has seen one of the many Puppet MasterAnnabelle, or Chucky movies, viewed one of their posters, or even just heard the chilling music accompanying their trailers might be able to understand how this could happen.

But why do you fear dolls that aren’t in movies?

creepy vintage doll

You begin to associate the fear you absorb from specific fear-inducing situations with other dolls, even those that are seemingly innocent. “This consistent pairing of dolls with other creepy, scary stimuli may lead to experiencing fear or nervousness when confronted with a doll or an image of a doll,” says Wolizky-Taylor. “Learning is a big factor, whether it’s direct learning experiences, or vicarious learning through others.”

While few people have studied the specific fear of dolls, there has been research conducted on what gives us the heebie jeebies in general. In 1970, Japanese roboticist Masahiro Mori coined the term “uncanny valley” to describe the discomfort that arises in people when they see robots that are very similar to, but not quite human.

At first, people respond well to robots even as they become more realistic, but at a certain point that changes. It usually happens when the robots are very close to being life-like, but then do something that is out of human character. That’s when you start to find them unnerving and possibly creepy. Basically, while we are attracted to just how similar they are to humans, we are also a bit afraid because they are different.

In one international study, researchers surveyed more than 1,000 people about general “creepiness” and concluded that ambiguity—when something is open to more than one interpretation—is a big factor in what triggers those feelings of fear. For instance, you see a doll (or even a clown, also feared by many) in a scary movie, and it understandably provokes fear. But when something or someone may not be dangerous at all—say, a doll on a shelf—it may still seem unpredictable to you, and therefore, totally creepy.

What is the extreme fear of dolls called?

Some people are so afraid of dolls, they cross over into phobia territory—but that’s very uncommon. Pediophobia, the fear of dolls, doesn’t really conform to typical types of phobia, such as those involving animals, natural environment, infections, or injuries, according to Wolizky-Taylor. In fact, she has never come across it in her practice or years of clinical research.

To meet the criteria of pediophobia, an individual would have to be debilitated by a persistent, excessive, and unreasonable fear or avoidance of dolls to the extent of causing significant distress or impairment to live their day-to-day life. Being simply creeped out by them doesn’t make the cut.

If you are genuinely scared by dolls and think you may suffer from pediophobia, Wolizky-Taylor explains that it is highly treatable, along with any other specific phobias. A treatment plan would likely involve exposure, “which is gradual confrontation with feared stimuli,” she says. In this case, it would mean slowly coming face-to-face with dolls. Someone might start by being in the same room as a doll, and eventually work up to holding a variety of different dolls of varying creepiness in their hands.

But if dolls just leave you feeling a little bit squeamish and uneasy? You might want to just say no when one of your pals suggests binge-watching Chucky movies.

Source: https://www.prevention.com/health/mental-health/a23737943/fear-of-dolls/

Miscarriage can occur at any point in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Miscarriage remains a highly sensitive topic that many Americans avoid talking about—but more women than you may think experience early pregnancy loss, often leaving them with intense emotional and physical symptoms of grief.

Among women who know they are pregnant, roughly 10 to 15 percent experience a miscarriage. However, it’s estimated that the actual miscarriage rate may be significantly higher—up to 50 percent, according to March of Dimes, a nonprofit organization that focuses on reducing premature births in the United States. This is due to the fact that many women miscarry before even realizing they’re pregnant.

But why does a miscarriage even happen—and are the symptoms always obvious? Here’s what you should know.

What causes a miscarriage?

A miscarriage is a pregnancy loss that occurs on its own within the first 20 weeks of gestation. While doctors are sometimes unable to explain why a miscarriage occurs, about half of miscarriages result from an abnormal number of chromosomes in an embryo.

“Reproduction is not flawless, and nature seeks to eliminate imperfect developing embryos,” says Felice Gersh, MD, an obstetrician-gynecologist and director of the Integrative Medical Group of Irvine. Other potential causes can stem from problems with the uterus or cervix (such as large uterine fibroids, for example), or infections like sexually transmitted diseases.

Some women are at a greater risk for miscarrying than others, including those who are older than 35, have a history of two or more miscarriages, use drugs or alcohol, smoke cigarettes, or have been exposed to harmful chemicals.

If you’ve experienced a miscarriage, it’s important to understand that it was in no way your fault, and it’s likely that your next pregnancy will go well, explains Dr. Gersh. However, you should definitely seek professional counseling if you’re experiencing intense grief. “Having a miscarriage is very emotionally impactful,” she says. “But please know things most likely will get better.”

Miscarriage symptoms

🚨 If you experience any of the symptoms of miscarriage, see your doctor, who can help stop the bleeding and prevent infection. 🚨

Weeks 2 through 4

In the first few weeks after conception, most women won’t even know they’re pregnant, as only a very sensitive pregnancy test will detect a pregnancy so early. A miscarriage during this early period is often referred to as a chemical pregnancy and sometimes goes unnoticed. Chemical pregnancies are often mistaken for a regular menstrual cycle that may arrive earlier or later than expected, with similar bleeding and cramping.

Weeks 4 through 12

Through the first trimester of pregnancy, the symptoms of miscarriage remain the same. “The most typical symptom of impending miscarriage is some degree of bleeding—which can vary from light spotting to heavy bleeding,” Dr. Gersh explains. The color of the blood can be brownish, pink, or bright or dark red, and can include some clots. The heavier the bleeding, the more likely it is that a miscarriage has occurred.

You may also feel cramping in your abdominal or pelvic region, as well as a lower back ache. “The degree of discomfort can vary from minimal to quite severe during the actual miscarriage,” says Dr. Gersh, noting that pain can also radiate down the upper legs.

The severity of the bleeding and cramps can sometimes (but not always) correlate with the duration of the pregnancy. “Think of it this way: the more tissue that’s built up in the uterus, the more that must be removed,” she explains. Hence, there will be more bleeding and cramping as the pregnancy progresses.

After a miscarriage, you may notice that any pregnancy symptoms you’ve been experiencing—breast tenderness, fatigue, nausea, and more—will disappear once a miscarriage occurs. “If nausea and breast tenderness disappear, that could signify that pregnancy hormone levels are dropping, though this is a very soft sign and without bleeding or cramping, I wouldn’t get too concerned,” says Dr. Gersh. However, she does reiterate that getting checked out is always wise.

Weeks 12 through 20

Once you’ve entered your second trimester, miscarriage symptoms can include pelvic pressure and mucous discharge; otherwise the main symptoms to look for are still bleeding and cramping.

Types of miscarriage

There are many different ways for a miscarriage to happen, and nearly all types of miscarriage have the same symptoms listed above. This includes:

  • Blighted ovum: This refers to a fertilized egg that never developed into an embryo.
  • Recurrent miscarriage: When a woman has multiple miscarriages, they’re described as recurrent miscarriages and often require medical testing to uncover the underlying cause.
  • Threatened miscarriage: This common condition causes miscarriage symptoms like abnormal bleeding and pain, but may not actually result in pregnancy loss, according to Dr. Gersh. While the pregnancy is considered a “threatened miscarriage,” many of these cases successfully carry to full term with the proper care.

Do these symptoms always point to a miscarriage?

Not necessarily, here are two exceptions to be aware of:

Ectopic (or tubal) pregnancy

This refers to a pregnancy where a fertilized egg implants anywhere outside the womb—usually a fallopian tube, but sometimes on the ovaries, in the cervix, on the liver, or by the bowel. These pregnancies are rarely successful and usually cause internal ruptures, which lead to vaginal bleeding, extreme cramping, dizziness, and fainting. An ectopic pregnancy is a very serious, potentially life-threatening condition and one of the most common causes of maternal mortality. The symptoms can be quite similar to a normal miscarriage, so be sure to contact your doctor if you experience them.

Molar pregnancy

A molar pregnancy occurs when tissue in the uterus develops into a tumor. The placenta doesn’t develop properly; instead, that tissue grows into a mass of cysts that grows in a chaotic manner and fills the uterus until heavy bleeding occurs. The symptoms may also include nausea and grape-like cysts that pass through from the vagina. An ultrasound can detect a molar pregnancy, so they rarely grow very large before being surgically extracted. A molar pregnancy almost always results in pregnancy loss, although many women who experience one are able to have a successful pregnancy later on.

The bottom line: Miscarriages are more common than many people realize, and while they can be extremely upsetting, they are never a woman’s fault. While pregnant, it’s important to pay close attention to your body and alert your doctor to any pain or bleeding. Despite having a miscarriage, many women go on to have healthy, successful pregnancies in the future.

Source: https://www.prevention.com/health/a23677161/miscarriage-symptoms/

Just because a drug doesn’t require a prescription, doesn’t mean it’s harmless or should be taken without careful consideration. A recent study revealed taking ibuprofen and other NSAIDs for even a short period of time can have an adverse effect on your heart health.

Quick definition: NSAIDs (ie. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are used for pain relief, reducing inflammation, bringing down fevers and preventing blood clotting. (1) Common NSAIDS are:

  • ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
  • naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)
  • aspirin
  • nabumetone (Relafen)
  • COX-2 inhibitors (Celebrex)

Study: Ibuprofen and other NSAIDs Increase Heart Attack Risk

Michèle Bally and her team of researchers from Montreal, Finland, and Germany reviewed heaps of data collected from previous studies to see if they could uncover information about the effects NSAIDs have on cardiovascular health. Scientists already knew that NSAID use could increase the risk of heart attack, but they didn’t know what kinds of doses had the effect, or which types of NSAIDs did this.

Bally’s team found that all NSAID types seemed to be associated with the increased risk of heart attack. The researchers found that daily doses of 200 mg or more of celecoxib, 100 mg or more of diclofenac, 1200 mg or more of ibuprofen, and 750 mg or more of naproxen for short terms of just 8-30 days could cause the risk of heart attack to jump up. (2)

(For reference, the recommended maximum safe dose of ibuprofen is 1200 mg for period pain, 3200 mg for arthritic pain, and 3200 mg for fever or other types of pain.) (3)

They recommend to medical practitioners to be careful to weigh the risks before having a patient start using NSAIDs for pain management or fever, since risk of heart attack seemed to be greatest at the beginning of use. (2) But as the person who’s ultimately in charge of your health (and especially since many NSAIDs are available over-the-counter), you should ask as many questions as you need to to make sure that you’re managing pain in a safe way.

Is It Safe to Take a Daily Aspirin?

Anthony Komaroff, MD of Harvard Health explains that taking an aspirin might stop an impending heart attack. He says, if you notice the signs of a heart attack, chew a 325mg non-coated aspirin to help prevent the formation of a blood clot in your heart, and then seek medical attention immediately. (4)

But as far as a daily aspirin goes, the potential pros of preventing blood clots are usually outweighed by the cons of various side effects (keep reading for a list of those). A 2018 study of almost 20,000 healthy adults over the age of 65 found that not only did taking a daily aspirin not seem to have protective effects, but those who took aspirin actually had a slightly increased mortality rate compared to those who didn’t (5.9% vs. 5.2%).

Professor Stephen Evans, from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine said: “The small benefit on heart disease was outweighed by overall increases in other diseases and suggests that in healthy older people without heart disease there is no benefit to low-dose aspirin.”

Ask your doctor if taking a daily aspirin is a safe choice for you given your medical history and cardiovascular health before you start using it. You should also learn about holistic approaches to protect your heart health. These focus on preventing heart conditions from developing in the first place through smart lifestyle and eating choices.

Other Health Effects of NSAID Use

NSAID use is often associated with gastrointestinal problems like stomach ulcers. The most frequently reported side effects of NSAIDs are: (5)

  • Gas
  • Feeling bloated
  • Heartburn
  • Stomach pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea and/or constipation
  • Dizziness
  • Feeling lightheaded
  • Problems with balance
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Mild headaches

If you have an existing medical condition, including diabetes, liver disease, kidney disease, asthma, history of stroke or heart attack, Crohn’s, or are pregnant, don’t take over-the-counter painkillers without making sure that it’s safe with your medical care provider.

Drug-Free Ways to Treat Pain

Especially in light of today’s opioid addiction crisis, it’s important to find natural ways to manage chronic pain as much as possible. Check out the following guides for alternative pain management below:

This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and is for information only. Always seek the advice of your physician or another qualified health provider with any questions about your medical condition and/or current medication. Do not disregard professional medical advice or delay seeking advice or treatment because of something you have read here.

Source: https://theheartysoul.com/nsaids-heart-attack-study/

Treat yourself kindly

“To love oneself is the beginning of a life-long romance.”

— Oscar Wilde

The words we use have a profound impact on us.

The way you talk to yourself is the way you love yourself — your self-talk can be kind or cruel.

Language influences our view of the world — it shapes the relationships with people and things. Your words define how you see yourself.

This is not a motivational post — positive words alone won’t make everything fine. You need more than that. A growing body of research indicates that self-talk can improve your memory, confidence, focus and more. But you need the right strategy.

Start by talking to yourself the same way you’d like someone else to speak to you.

The Best Person You Can Speak To

“As soon as you trust yourself, you will know how to live.” — Johann Wolfgang Goethe

It’s okay to struggle with self-confidence — it happens to everyone around you.

We suffer when we stop taking care of ourselves. So, why do we do it? Maybe because we (wrongly) confuse self-esteem with being selfish. Or perhaps we believe we are not worth it. Self-love is the foundation of self-confidence. You have to accept yourself — nurture compassionate inner-dialogue.

Talking to oneself is one the most natural, yet undervalued, skills we have.

Humans develop our inner-voice at the same time we learn how to speak. Both feed off each other. However, we dedicate much more time and effort to improve our conversations with other people than with ourselves.

How do you usually talk to yourself?

The quality of your inner speech is critical to understanding who you are.

Professor Charle Fernyhough says: “This dialogue has some very special qualities that involve representing the point of view or the perspective of another person. It’s very powerful… You can take a perspective on what you are doing.”

Self-talk is the best feedback you can get — it gives you a fresh perspective.

Having a conversation with yourself is like talking to someone else. You don’t know everything you’re going to say — your words can surprise you.

Practicing self-talk has many benefits.

Stimulates self-reflection:

Research by Canadian professor Alain Morin shows there’s a high correlation between talking to oneself more frequently and a higher self-awareness and self-evaluation.

Increases motivation

A meta-analysis of 32 sport psychological studies that self-talk improves sports performance. Tennis players talk out loud to regain confidence after losing a point.

Expresses Emotions

Talking to yourself helps to connect with your emotions. When you feel stressed out, naming your feelings can help you slow down. It’s the first step towards understanding what’s causes your anxiety.

Helps you reflect on the past

Revisiting the past — without too much rehashing — is how we learn and become wiser. Talking to ourselves is a very effective way to reflect on the past.

Prepares you for the future

Mental preparation — not anticipation — determines our chances of success. We can start familiarizing with a new activity. Or getting ready to deal with the unknown.

Helps discriminate right from wrong

Inner-talk is very useful to analyze a decision or behavior — we can evaluate actions against our moral standards.

Most importantly, self-talk can make us feel better about ourselves and instill confidence to get through tough challenges, as research by the University of Michigan demonstrated.

By improving your inner-dialogue, you become the best person you can speak to. However, you have to choose the right words for this to work.

Mind Your Words

“Raise your words, not your voice. It is rain that grows flowers, not thunder.” — Rumi

The power of words come from the beliefs we have in them — we believe and embody our words.

Our brain is ‘hard-wired’ to be negative.

Neuroscience shows that the majority of our self-talk is negative — it’s working against us. These negative thoughts make us feel angry, irritated, frustrated, hopelessness.

According to neuropsychologist Rick Hanson, the brain is like Velcro for negative experiences and Teflon for positive ones. This negativity bias causes the brain to overreact to ‘bad words,’ compared to how it responds to ‘good words.’ But we can overcome this bias by becoming more mindful of the words we choose.

Our words affect our emotions, motivation and potential accomplishments.

Based on my experience facilitating change leadership workshops, these are the most common (and damaging) ‘negative words.’

“I can’t.”

It’s the belief that you cannot do something, even before you tried. It’s not just about low self-confidence. Sometimes, people get caught by a perfectionist mindset — they confuse not being an expert with not being capable of. The ‘can’ts’ reflect lack of resilience — we need to learn to fail and try again and again.

“I have to.”

This approach turns regular activities into a burden. We approach everyday chores with the wrong mentality. When you can’t do what you love, you have to learn to love what you do. The ‘don’t wants’ address a broken relationship with simple things in life.

“I should.”

This mindset addresses external pressure — other people’s expectations make us feel guilty and unhappy. It’s the result of other people trying to impose their will over ours — our parents, teachers, friends, bosses, and so on. The ‘shoulds’ represent what others want us to do.

A Strategy to Develop Kinder Conversations

“Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge.” — Plato

Positive self-talk has stress management, productivity, and health benefits that have been proven by research.

Here’s a five-step strategy towards kinder inner-conversations.

1. Awareness

To create change, you need to be aware that something needs to be modified. Pay attention to how you talk to yourself and the impact of your words.

Some might feel harmless but, in the long run, those words can harm you. Your thoughts and emotions are interconnected — the way we think impacts how we feel (Hannell, 2004).

You can ask a friend to call you out every time you use negatives words to describe your life or yourself. Another approach is to reflect on the words you think when you feel down. Capture those on a notebook and review on a weekly basis. What trends do you observe? What’s the story?

2. Positive Affirmations

Affirmations originated with French psychologist Émile Coué, who advocated repeating this sentence throughout the day: “Every day, in every way, I’m getting better and better.”

Affirmations are very polarizing — people either love or hate them. I believe that they work if we use them with a balanced approach. Buddhism has been using affirmation as part of the meditation and yoga practice for ages.

Negative preprogramming (from when we were a child) replays in our minds. Positive affirmations have many benefits, such as improved reduced stress and improved health — what we repeatedly focus on, expands.

Here are a couple of affirmations for you to practice with. As you can see, there are meant to promote a positive view of life, not to convince you that everything is perfect.

“I know who I am and I am enough.”

“It’s okay to be broken. And it’s okay to let the broken parts mend.”

“I choose to be present and mindful right now.”

“I am in control of the way I respond to the behavior of others.”

“I’m grateful for the life I have.”

3. Replace words

The easiest way to erase certain words from your inner-dialogue is to replace them with others.

Moving forward try replacing:

“I’ can’t” by “I will.”

“I have to” by “I want to.”

“I should” by “I choose to” (this opens the door to say ‘no’ to external expectations).

Try this exercise with a friend or colleague. List all the things you ‘have to do’ — one-at-a-time — and let the person reframe it by replacing “have to” by “want to.”

For example, you say: “I have to do the laundry;” the other person replies “You want to do the laundry.” Keep doing this with every activity on your list. Listening to other people’s voice reframing your words is a powerful experience!

4. Pause, Reflect & Talk

As you become more aware of the words you use, practice reflection.

Pause for a couple of seconds. Evaluate your thoughts.

Is that hurtful or helpful?

Reflect on the words you were using. If they hurt you, go back and see how you can ‘erase-and-replace’ those words.

5. Increase positive self-talk

Building a habit takes times — you want to turn the process into something natural. The same happens with self-talk. You’ll see improvements early on. But, once it becomes intuitive, you’ll experience the transforming effect.

As Glen Bassett stated, “If you keep doing what you always have done, you will remain the same person who you always have been.”

Words are powerful but don’t expect miracles. New habits form when new strategies are learned and applied. Change takes time and practice.

You need to develop awareness before you can implement positive self-talk into your daily routines.

The words you tell yourself can be compassionate or cruel. Treat yourself kindly.

Source: https://medium.com/personal-growth/the-power-of-words-how-to-improve-self-confidence-1cef68da7d61

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a supplemental application for Gardasil 9 (Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 9-valent Vaccine, Recombinant) expanding the approved use of the vaccine to include women and men aged 27 through 45 years. Gardasil 9 prevents certain cancers and diseases caused by the nine HPV types covered by the vaccine.

“Today’s approval represents an important opportunity to help prevent HPV-related diseases and cancers in a broader age range,” said Peter Marks, M.D., Ph.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. ”The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that HPV vaccination prior to becoming infected with the HPV types covered by the vaccine has the potential to prevent more than 90 percent of these cancers, or 31,200 cases every year, from ever developing.”

According to the CDC, every year about 14 million Americans become infected with HPV; about 12,000 women are diagnosed with and about 4,000 women die from cervical cancer caused by certain HPV viruses. Additionally, HPV viruses are associated with several other forms of cancer affecting men and women.

Gardasil, a vaccine approved by the FDA in 2006 to prevent certain cancers and diseases caused by four HPV types, is no longer distributed in the U.S. In 2014, the FDA approved Gardasil 9, which covers the same four HPV types as Gardasil, as well as an additional five HPV types. Gardasil 9 was approved for use in males and females aged 9 through 26 years.

The effectiveness of Gardasil is relevant to Gardasil 9 since the vaccines are manufactured similarly and cover four of the same HPV types. In a study in approximately 3,200 women 27 through 45 years of age, followed for an average of 3.5 years, Gardasil was 88 percent effective in the prevention of a combined endpoint of persistent infection, genital warts, vulvar and vaginal precancerous lesions, cervical precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer related to HPV types covered by the vaccine. The FDA’s approval of Gardasil 9 in women 27 through 45 years of age is based on these results and new data on long term follow-up from this study.

Effectiveness of Gardasil 9 in men 27 through 45 years of age is inferred from the data described above in women 27 through 45 years of age, as well as efficacy data from Gardasil in younger men (16 through 26 years of age) and immunogenicity data from a clinical trial in which 150 men, 27 through 45 years of age, received a 3-dose regimen of Gardasil over 6 months.

The safety of Gardasil 9 was evaluated in about a total of 13,000 males and females. The most commonly reported adverse reactions were injection site pain, swelling, redness and headaches.

The FDA granted the Gardasil 9 application priority review status. This program facilitates and expedites the review of medical products that address a serious or life-threatening condition.

The FDA granted approval of this supplement to the Gardasil 9 Biologics License Application to Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp. a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.

The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.

Source: https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/UCM622715.htm

Ever thought about taking a quick snooze midday (even while in the office)? Well, science just showed it might not be a bad idea.

While previous research has found that sleep improves our ability to concentrate and solve problems, a new study set out to take this idea a step further. Researchers out of the University of Bristol tested how sleep affects the speed with which we process information, both consciously and unconsciously.

Interestingly enough, the majority of the stimuli and information we receive during the day is actually taken in unconsciously. For example, when you half-hear your co-worker’s conversations or see a billboard out of the corner of your eye, you’re not actively focusing on these stimuli, but that doesn’t mean they’re not providing you with critical information.

This study found that after a nap, participants were able to more quickly process and react after exposure to unconscious stimuli, suggesting that even a short amount of sleep can help us digest subliminal cues.

Convinced to take a nap yet? Awesome—just keep a few best practices in mind: Limit your nap time to 20 to 30 minutes so you wake up feeling refreshed rather than groggy. And if you have control over your sleep environment, let in some light so your body doesn’t think it’s nighttime.

Consider yourself on the path to better quality sleep and even better decisions.

Source: https://www.mindbodygreen.com/articles/having-trouble-making-decision-daytime-naps-may-be-answer