• Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla said people will “likely” need a third dose of a Covid-19 vaccine within 12 months of getting fully vaccinated.
  • He also said it’s possible people will need to get vaccinated against the coronavirus annually.

Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla said people will “likely” need a booster dose of a Covid-19 vaccine within 12 months of getting fully vaccinated. His comments were made public Thursday but were taped April 1.

Bourla said it’s possible people will need to get vaccinated against the coronavirus annually.

“A likely scenario is that there will be likely a need for a third dose, somewhere between six and 12 months and then from there, there will be an annual revaccination, but all of that needs to be confirmed. And again, the variants will play a key role,” he told CNBC’s Bertha Coombs during an event with CVS Health.

“It is extremely important to suppress the pool of people that can be susceptible to the virus,” Bourla said.

The comment comes after Johnson & Johnson CEO Alex Gorsky told CNBC in February that people may need to get vaccinated against Covid-19 annually, just like seasonal flu shots.

Researchers still don’t know how long protection against the virus lasts once someone has been fully vaccinated.

Pfizer said earlier this month that its Covid-19 vaccine was more than 91% effective at protecting against the coronavirus and more than 95% effective against severe disease up to six months after the second dose. Moderna’s vaccine, which uses technology similar to Pfizer’s, was also shown to be highly effective at six months.

Pfizer’s data was based on more than 12,000 vaccinated participants. However, researchers say more data is still needed to determine whether protection lasts after six months.

Earlier Thursday, the Biden administration’s Covid response chief science officer, David Kessler, said Americans should expect to receive booster shots to protect against coronavirus variants.

Kessler told U.S. lawmakers that currently authorized vaccines are highly protective but noted new variants could “challenge” the effectiveness of the shots.

“We don’t know everything at this moment,” he told the House Select Subcommittee on the Coronavirus Crisis.

“We are studying the durability of the antibody response,” he said. “It seems strong but there is some waning of that and no doubt the variants challenge … they make these vaccines work harder. So I think for planning purposes, planning purposes only, I think we should expect that we may have to boost.”

In February, Pfizer and BioNTech said they were testing a third dose of their Covid-19 vaccine to better understand the immune response against new variants of the virus.

Late last month, the National Institutes of Health started testing a new Covid vaccine from Moderna in addition to the one it already has, designed to protect against a problematic variant first found in South Africa.

Moderna CEO Stephane Bancel told CNBC on Wednesday that the company hopes to have a booster shot for its two-dose vaccine available in the fall.


Image by Marija Kovac / Stocksy

Call me dramatic, but there’s nothing worse than dropping a pretty penny on a manicure (or spending a solid hour lacquer in-hand), only to find it chipped and peeling after a few days’ time. Polish doesn’t last forever, of course, but it’s a cruel twist of fate for an immaculate mani to be so fleeting, right?

Good news: According to the experts, there are a few nail care tweaks to help make your nail polish last longer. Here, their tips and tricks to give the mani some staying power: 

1. Don’t soak.

“When your nails are soaked in water, they expand,” manicurist and founder of Varnish Lane, Lauren Dunne once told us. The soak can distort and widen the nails’ shape, and when you paint polish over the nail and it dries “[this causes] your polish to chip prematurely.” While a good soak can help soften the coarser skin on your feet, it’s not totally necessary for the more delicate skin on your fingertips.

That said, you’ll want to avoid soaking your fingertips after the mani, too (with warm baths, washing dishes, and the like). Not only can the water cause your nails to expand and contract, which can lift the pigment, but it can also make them brittle and dry over time. 

2. Buff the nails after filing. 

After clipping and shaping your nails, don’t skip the buffer. Especially if you “saw” at the nail with a rough emery board, you can create tiny micro-frays along the nail—you may not be able to see the splits, but trust that when those rough edges start to peel, your polish will go along with it. That said, when you buff along the free edge of the nail, it actually helps seal the keratin layers that may have split during filing. 

You can also use a glass nail file to simultaneously smooth out the edges while you shape: “Due to the fine grit of a glass/crystal file, it also closes and seals the keratin layers of the free edge of the nail,” says Evelyn Lim, chief educator of Paintbox. If you use a standard emery board, though, chances are you’ll need a quick buff. 

3. Avoid getting polish on your cuticles.

It’s easier said than done, we know, but do your best to paint inside the lines. A stray swipe of polish might not seem be-all and end-all, but you don’t want the lacquer to settle into your cuticles. See, the paint on your skin will come off quicker than the paint on your nails; if your polish is sealed between your skin and nail, when the paint eventually lifts off your cuticles, the polish on your nail will chip along with it. 

But mastering an error-free mani is, you know, pretty difficult. Try this fail-safe tip for a smudge-free manicure: Before applying your base coat, trace the perimeter of your nails with an oily balm, especially working it into those cuticles. The jelly substance acts as a barrier between your skin and the nail, so if you smudge a little polish into your cuticles while you paint, it’ll wipe off afterward with ease. (See here for the full tutorial.) 

4. Push your cuticles back.

“When polish sticks to your cuticles, it’s easy to peel and ruin your mani,” says Amy Lin, the founder of sundays—a nail care brand focused on wellness (as we pointed out with the predicament above). That said, pushing them back gently with a wooden stick or cuticle pusher can help create ample space on the nail plate.

“Make sure you clean any residue oil from the cuticle serum after you’re done cleaning up your cuticles,” Lin notes, adding, “Wash your hands or use a polish remover to clean the nail plate.”

5. Use nourishing, conditioning polishes. 

As a general rule: When your nails are weak and brittle, your polish will chip easier. After all, how is a lacquer going to stay on nails that frequently break and split? That said, products that impart nourishing, moisturizing ingredients (and avoid formaldehyde, camphor, toluene, and other drying chemicals) have a bit more staying power—that goes for pigments, top coats, and base coats.

“The most important being your base coat because that is what is touching your nail and seeping into the skin,” says Nadine Abramcyk, co-founder of clean salon tenoverten. So if you’re going to invest in one top-quality polish, perhaps it should be your base. But we suggest making the full swap to clean nail care if you can; today’s options are so luxe and silky. 

6. Use a chip-resisting top coat. 

Top coats do way more than provide a patent-leather finish. Snag a good, chip-resistant lacquer (like this protective top coat from sundays), and it’ll keep your polish from peeling over time.

Better yet, you might want to touch up the top coat after a few days—the polish can start to wear off after some time, which leaves the pigment vulnerable to chips and dings. “This is an important hack for keeping your nails intact in between manicures,” Lin adds.

7. Let your polish fully set. 

While polish usually takes around seven to 10 minutes to dry, according to Limyou don’t want to be flailing your digits right after stowing the mani kit. You may thinkyour nails have fully dried, but as soon as you dig into your tote or put on your shoes, you’re met with smudged fingertips. Tragic.

Let your polish fully set to keep it from denting during the wait time. And if you just can’t bear the 10-minute window, try these hacks to help your nails dry faster

8. Dry with cool air. 

On that note, you may rely on a dryer to help speed the dry time, be it a fan (electric or paper) or a hairdryer. If you choose the latter, make sure to keep the setting on cool: Heat can cause the polish to bubble, which makes it easier for it to chip down the line.

Plus, as Lin tells us about drying nails fast, cold air actually works faster, and it won’t dry out the surrounding skin. “[Heat] can dry out your cuticle area, which you spent a lot of time nourishing during a manicure,” she notes.

9. Don’t pick or bite. 

It seemsobvious, but the more you chomp at your polish, the less likely it’ll stay. If you’re a frequent nail-biter or cuticle picker, it can be tough to quit the habit—but try these tips to nip the nail-biting for good. Some highlights? A bit of mindfulness, like breathwork or going for a quick walk, can be helpful for some, while others may need to find other ways to keep your hands busy (like, say, squeezing a stress ball). 

The takeaway. 

If you can’t seem to last three days without a chipped mani, these tips will surely give your look some staying power. Although, you might not want to leave the same shade on for more than three weeks, no matter how immaculate it may be: “The base coat might wear off, and the pigment might start to stain your nails,” Lin once shared with mbg. So if your polish starts to peel after some time, take it as a sign your nails may need a breather


FDA and CDC WIll Pause Use of Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Over Blood Clot Concerns

Six women out of 6.8 million people who have received the J&J vaccine experienced this rare type of blood clot, according to the CDC.

Federal health officials on Tuesday called for a pause in the use of Johnson & Johnson’s (J&J’s) one-dose COVID-19 vaccine following six reports of a rare type of blood clot known as a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, or CVST, in women who received the vaccine. One woman died and another has been hospitalized in critical condition, according to news reports.

In a joint statement issued Tuesday, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended a temporary standstill in vaccine administration “out of an abundance of caution.” All six cases were in women ages 18 to 48, and occurred in combination with low levels of blood platelets, a condition known as thrombocytopenia, the agencies noted.

The FDA and CDC intend to further investigate these cases and assess their significance. FDA Acting Commissioner Janet Woodcock, MD, told reporters on Tuesday that such adverse events appear to be “extremely rare.” Nevertheless, she stressed that COVID-19 vaccination safety is a top priority and that the administration takes all such reports very seriously.

In part, the pause is meant to ensure that heath care providers are aware of the potential for this type of blood clot to occur. Again, as a precaution, the agencies want providers to be prepared to recognize, manage, and treat vaccine recipients who experience this adverse event.

At this point, it’s not known whether the J&J vaccine caused the clots. In a prepared statement, J&J noted that the government is reviewing data on six cases out of 6.8 million doses administered. The vaccine maker also noted that it is reviewing the cases with European health authorities and had decided to delay the vaccine rollout in Europe.

If you recently had a J&J shot, here’s what experts want you to know about this rare clotting complication.

What is cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, or CVST?

A CVST is not like the type of blood clot that blocks blood flow to the brain. This type of clot forms in the venous sinuses, which are spaces in the skull that allow blood to drain from the brain. (FYI, they’re not the same sinuses that fill with mucus when you get a cold. That’s a separate drainage system.)

When a blood clot forms in the venous sinuses, it’s like having a clog in your plumbing. “This is basically preventing blood from draining out of the brain,” Stacey Rose, MD, assistant professor of internal medicine and infectious diseases at Baylor College of Medicine, tells Health. And, she says, that congestion of blood in the brain is what leads to stroke—a very rare type of stroke affecting fewer than five in a million people every year, per Johns Hopkins Medicine.

James Bussel, MD, professor emeritus of pediatrics at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York City, who studies blood disorders, explains the chain of events this way: Your platelets, which are blood cells that help your blood to clot, somehow get activated; a clot forms in these large sinuses; and you end up with a low platelet count because you’re using up platelets. That, in turn, can lead to bleeding, he tells Health.

What are the CVST symptoms to watch out for?

The FDA and CDC advise people who have received the J&J vaccine who develop severe headache, abdominal pain, leg pain, or shortness of breath within three weeks after getting their shot to contact their health care provider. (Belly pain can be a sign that the person has developed clots in the abdomen, Dr. Bussel notes.)

In the six reported cases, symptoms appeared six to 13 days after vaccination. “Clearly we need to get a diagnosis as soon as possible in patients who are having these sorts of symptoms,” Dr. Rose observes.

However, a common blood-thinning medication called heparin, often used to treat blood clots, may, in these instances, make the problem worse, Anthony Fauci, MD, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, pointed out during a White House press briefing on Tuesday.

As Dr. Rose explains, “It might be that if you’ve already had some sort of backup into the brain, you wouldn’t want to give heparin because then it’s just going to sit in the blood in the brain and cause more damage.”

The takeaway: This shouldn’t make you shy away from getting vaccinated

It’s impossible to know at this moment why these adverse reactions occurred, especially because these events appear to be extremely rare (literally less than one in a million, if you figure that only six women among 6.8 million people who have received the J&J experienced CVST).

Studies of CVST in general highlight certain risk factors. “For whatever reason, women in the postpartum period are at higher risk,” Dr. Rose points out. Perhaps that has something to do with hormones, she says. Whether this was the case for the six women who received the J&J vaccine is unknown, but the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists issued a statement on Tuesday advising their ob-gyns to steer their patients seeking COVID vaccination to one of the other two vaccines currently available: “At this time, there is no clear phenotype of women who are more or less likely to experience this rare complication,” ACOG noted. “However, until there is a better understanding of the frequency and impact of this finding, it will be important to encourage pregnant and postpartum women who wish to be vaccinated to receive the mRNA vaccines: Pfizer or Moderna.”

Other factors, like having a clotting disorder or an autoimmune disorder, like lupus, can also put people at risk for these blot clots, says Dr. Rose—but again, that’s for CVST in general and not necessarily linked to those six women who received the J&J vaccine.

Overall, Arthur Caplan, PhD, professor of bioethics at the New York University Grossman School of Medicine in New York City, says we don’t collect good baseline information from regular people (aka, those not in clinical trials) getting vaccines. So if an adverse reaction pops up, it can be hard to tell whether the vaccine caused it or if something else is going on. That’s why the CDC and FDA both recommended a pause on administering the vaccine in order to investigate these cases.

And for those people who are now questioning whether to get a COVID shot, Caplan says, “Fear the virus, not the vaccine.” Birth control pills, he notes, are much more likely to cause blood clots than COVID vaccines, albeit a different type of blood clot. Meantime, thousands of Americans are dying or being hospitalized every day with COVID-19. “You don’t want to be talking about remote, tiny risks from vaccines at graveyards,” he says.


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